We have emotion, knowledge, diversity between one another, and the ability to know and choose from right or wrong.
Member Essays Mahamudra and Dzogchen, Two Systems of Buddhist Yoga It is now in the present century, that for the first time, the West is finally beginning to learn something in depth about the ancient mystical teachings and practices of Buddhist Yogacara.
Yogacara means to practice yoga, or in other words, to practice meditation, stilling the mind, searching inwards so as to acquire self-realization.
This is the "practice tradition" at the heart of the Buddhist religion. Where ever Buddhism exists, there are those who commit themselves to this tradition - to the genuine "practice" of Yoga-meditation.
Here, the concept "practice" stands in contrast to "scholasticism". It means to practice a spiritual path, rather than study and debate philosophy. It means to practice yoga-meditation rather than trying to understand the meaning of life by using discursive reasoning. In Thailand and Burma, monks have for centuries taken themselves off to the forest, living simple ascetic lives, so as to devote themselves to contemplative practice.
Today, we follow the "practice tradition" of Buddhism than comes under the guidance of the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa, Urgyen Thinley Dorje. By "practice tradition" we mean a tradition that is focused on the practice of spiritual conduct and meditation, where the individual aims to attain Enlightenment in his or her present life.
Believing that the discursive intellect, on its own, is not capable of reasoning a way to true Enlightenment, the Yogin is a woman or man who turns to yoga-meditation so as to experience directly the nature of the mind. Yogacara does not mean a particular set of views or religious beliefs.
It does not imply a specific philosophy, such as the Middle Way View of Nagarjuna Madhyamaka or the Mind-only doctrine Cittamatranor a system of thought like Vedanta or the scientific speculations of someone such as Stephen Hawkings.
Though anyone may benefit from pondering the nature of existence and studying the thought of philosophy and science, and although we do study the above systems of thought, "Yogacara" strictly means to do meditation or various spiritual exercises that will lead to direct experience of the nature of the mind in and of itself.
In Buddhist India and Tibet, the culmination of the long development of contemplative yoga practice led to two close systems of practice: Mahasamdhi means "absolute wholeness", or all-inclusive completeness, i. Mahamudra is a term referring to the "Great Seal" or the "Absolute State" of nonduality - the Great Seal of Awareness, which is but another way of defining Ultimate Reality.
Both describe that final state of realization in which the duality of apparent existence, the differentiation of subject consciousness and object worldcollapses into original wholeness.
Dzogchen or Mahamudra is a "tantric" teaching concerning absolute Reality. Can we experience it? We can perfectly well see that every sentient being has consciousness.
We can see that consciousness is the perception of an object. There is no consciousness, without being conscious of something. What is consciousness conscious of? To guide the enquirer to an understanding of this question, it is pointed out that visual-consciousness is that which is conscious of visible phenomena.
Through vibrations making an impression on the organ of sight, the eye, visual-consciousness is made aware of colour, light and form. The same goes for auditory-consciousness, tactile consciousness, and so forth.
So "consciousness" is a state of mind that always is conscious of something. To recognize this, is to see that consciousness does not observe itself, because its very nature is to be preoccupied with observing something other than itself. At least this is apparently so.
Besides the actual five "sense-consciousnesses," associated with seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, we can also speak of a mental-consciousness mano-vijnana. Mental-consciousness is that which is aware of mental phenomena, such as our thoughts, feelings, desires and instinctual impulses, etc.
When in Western psychology, and when in common western speech, we refer to the term "Consciousness", we are from a Buddhist perspective generally referring to the mano-vijnana. But we should take account of the other five consciousnesses as well. Indeed, we can assume that within the human brain there are thus six centres of consciousness.
But there are also, apparently, mental processes that go on, of which we are not conscious. In western psychology we say that these processes occur unconsciously, or subconsciously. Likewise, in Yogacara terminology, we speak of a process of mentation that is called the klista-manas, "obscured mind" or the "unconsciousness.
The traditional yogi or yogini learns to penetrate into the unconsciousness klista-manas through the practice of one-pointed concentration and the nine stages of Shamatha meditation. Just as the darkness of a shadow vanishes before the light of a lamp, so it is said that the klista-manas exists not in the mind of the enlightened Arhat.
When the veil of the klista-manas is penetrated, the meditator experiences a vast new wealth of awareness. This deep and refreshing state of oceanic awareness is the unified field of consciousness alaya-vijnana of which each individual sentient being is, as it were, a finite spark.
To experience unified mind is to gain a sense of communion with the very ground of existential consciousness in its own true nature.An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on .
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Updated September 26, The essay prompt for option #1 of the Common Application allows students a lot of breadth: "Some students. Library: Member Essays Mahamudra and Dzogchen, Two Systems of Buddhist Yoga.
It is now in the present century, that for the first time, the West is finally beginning to learn something in depth about the ancient mystical teachings and . The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature by William Cronon.
Print-formatted version: PDF In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., , The time has come to rethink wilderness.
Based on the two essays I read and my experiences in life in general, it is my opinion that human nature is ultimately good. Wikipedia defines human nature as “the distinguishing characteristics that humans tend to have naturally, i.
e., independently of the influence of culture. Essay Man Is Good Or Evil? of human nature, a controversial issue has been whether it is in our human nature to be good or evil and if it can be shaped or not.
On the one hand, Mencius argues that it is in our nature to be good and that it can be shaped.