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The process oferosion and accretion taking place along a stretch of coastline is governed by the geology ofthe area and the direction and strength of the wave attack. The Las Cuev,as beach is less dynamic, due to its embayed characteristic and, being open to the Caribbean Sea, is a much smaller body ofwater.
It is apparent that the interplay ofcoastal processes, sediment characteristics and coastline orientation account for the variations in the intensity of the processes operating at each beach.
This paper presents the data collected on coastal processes, sediment and morphological characteristics ofboth beaches. Las Cuevas Bay is a prospective tourist destination on the north coast with a distinctintive coastal geomorphology that includes caves and other erosional features.
The study is timely because a proper understanding of the variations in processes, beach morphology, and sediment characteristics will be invaluable in controlling and finding solutions to problems, and to planning and managing coastal resources and Coastal Geomorphology in Trinidad 1J7 facilities for tourism.
Earlier work on the coastal geomorphology of Trinidad's beaches has been reported by Lackhai ; Trinidad's coasts are influenced by the discharge ofthe Orinoco River and the Guiana current that flows along the east coast of South America Andel, Trinidad and Tobago has a tropical maritime climate with two distinct seasons; a wet and a dry season.
The dominant ocean current influence in Trinidad and Tobago is the northern branch of the South Equatorial Current, the Guiana Current. As the Guiana Current approaches Trinidad and Tobago it divides into two streams, with the inner stream passing into the Columbus Channel in a predominantly westerly flow and then into the Gulf of Paria, while the outer stream passes up along the east coast of Trinidad.
The tidal regime is semi-diurnal with periods of approximately At high spring tides, the maximum range is 1. On the north coast, deepwater wave attack is predominantly from north-east to east.
During the winter months, swells attack the coast from directions varying from north-west to north-east. On the east coast, deepwater wave attack is primarily from north-east to south-east, with an easterly approach being the most significant, making sea conditions difficult at all times.
Description of the study areas The variations in direction and strength of the wave attack along with the variations in geologic structure have produced a wide range of coastal landforms on the beaches in Trinidad.
Manzanilla beach has been classified as an open sea beach while Las Cuevas is a bay beach Georges, The east coast of Trinidad is rugged in its northern section where the rocks of the Northern Range outcrop.
Further south the coastline becomes gentler and the Nariva wetlands are located in the central regions Bertrand et. Manzanilla beach is located in Cocos Bay which is embraced by two Caribbean Geography 14 2 o I . The Manzanilla beach is oriented north to south and is exposed to the Atlantic Ocean.
It is a typical barrier beach behind which east flowing rivers have ponded the extensive Nariva freshwater swamp. Manzanilla beach located on the east coast along the ManzaniIla-Mayaro road. Manzanilla is a long beach of about 20km with brownish-grey fine sand, and the sea bed dips gently from the coast towards the edge ofthe continental shelf approximately km offshore.
Las Cuevas Bay is located on the north-western coast of Trinidad and lies in the foothills of the Northern Range Figure 1. Las Cuevas Bay is oriented east to west and is open to the Caribbean Sea. The name 'Las Cuevas' is derived from the Spanish word for caves and there are many caves on this beach.
Las Cuevas Bay is located where the harder rocks of the Northern Range outcrop along the northern coastline. Lithologically, the Northern Range consists of low-grade regionally metamorphosed, crystalline limestone, phyllites, Coastal Geomorphology in Trinidad mica-schists and quartzites Kugler, The sea bed to the north of Trinidad shelves more steeply than on the east coast with the edge of the continental shelf the m contour being some 60km offshore.
Where soft rock strata occur, erosion has created deeply indented bays, as at Maracas and Las Cuevas. Methodology Primary data was collected over a three month period in May, June and July The summer period usually occurs from May to October where sea conditions are relatively calm.
The winter period is associated with swell waves which are most often experienced in the Caribbean between the months of October to April, and are usually caused by intense mid-latitude storms in the North Atlantic Ocean Cambers, During the third week of each month of the fieldwork period, the two study areas were visited on separate days and data collected accordingly.
Coastal energy inputs Coastal and shallow-water marine processes playa significant role in the geomorphology of any coastal area. The strength and direction of winds, currents, and waves are directly responsible for the shaping of coastlines and the movement of sediment.
These processes were recorded over a three month period in the summer ofand a summary of the findings is displayed in Table 1. Comparison ofcoastal energy inputs at the study areas Manzanilla, an open bay, received higher wind speeds over the period of study than Las Cuevas which is embayed and more sheltered by its headlands.
This translated into larger maximum breaker heights of 1. Both beaches however had roughly the same average wave period, around 7 seconds. Average wavelengths for Manzanilla were slightly longer than Las Cuevas.
A major difference observed was that Manzanilla had several lines of spilling breakers simultaneously in the surf zone compared to Las Cuevas which had only one plunging breaker at a time in the surf zone.CARIBBEAN SECONDARY EDUCATION CERTIFICATE The SBA component of the Office Administration course is an integral part of students’ assessment which is covered by the syllabus.
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