Additional Information Abstract Low-income African American inner city adolescent females continue to be at disproportionately high risk for contracting HIV. Though it has been speculated that mothers' involvement in HIV risk reduction may be helpful in the fight against HIV, very few interventions involve mothers.
Strategies for community out-reach Identifying key nutrition issues and analysing determinants of eating behaviour The task of planning nutrition education interventions integrated into nutrition improvement programmes, requires that the various causes and effects of nutrition issues and problems be addressed in a concerted manner.
Only through a systematic analysis of the nutrition and health-related needs of a community, can an effective nutrition education programme be developed. Any nutrition education intervention should consider the socio-cultural, economic, political, and technological environments which include food and nutrition issues.
Thus, the first step is a situational analysis examining the factors that would draw out pertinent issues to be addressed through nutrition education. An assessment determines the priority issues, problems, local power structures, supporting institutions, communication resources, as well as relevant policies, and the degree to which these affect the state of nutrition and health of the community.
An analysis studies the underlying factors that impinge on the issues, problems, structures, resources and policies. Action, in terms of community out-reach strategies, includes: In designing appropriate community out-reach strategies, nutrition education planners need two major types of information.
Information about people Information about people is sometimes referred to as audience predisposition in communication models Gillespie, The information about people will help identify the nutritional needs of the community.
Four basic methods are employed to describe the nutritional status of "at risk" groups in the community: This describes what and how much people usually eat. It determines whether the amount and variety of food intake is adequate for the individual and the household.
It also tells if there is food scarcity at certain times of the year. Morbidity and mortality rates and their causes are indicators of the interrelationships between nutrition and prevalent disease patterns, including infections and infestations. It also guides planners in choosing interpersonal and mediated approaches.
Types of occupations, incomes and educational attainment of family members, and whether women work outside the home, indicate if money is regularly available to buy food.
Food expenditures also provide an index of the percentage of family income spent on food and non-food items. Child care providers should also receive nutrition education. Food habits, practices, superstitions, attitudes, social and religious customs, and breast-feeding and weaning practices are useful in determining and designing appropriate nutritional messages and activities.
The structure and flow of nutritional information or misinformation among women and men in the community help to identify specific target participants for nutrition education interventions, e. These studies relate nutrient deficient patterns to spatial, ecological, socio-economic, and demographic characteristics of a population.
For example, a study of upland dwellers can yield useful information for designing intervention programmes based on an "area level", integrating a development planning approach rather than a sectoral approach.
Information about local resources Information about local resources that will help identify problems related to food and nutrition in the community include:Effectiveness of an Educational Program on Childhood Tuberculosis Supported (Intervention = to , and Control = to ), this difference in group; each of the groups consisted of 25 mothers.
The intervention was carried out in four phases. To improve the effectiveness of the existing education about the HPV To improve the existing educational strategy intervention was aimed at Dutch mothers of girls to be invited for the HPV vaccination in (ie, girls born in ).
To date, only few tailored interventions to encourage HPV. Little or no evidence for the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of any of the interventions to reduce repeat pregnancy in young women was found.
Qualitative and realist evidence helped to explain gaps in intervention design that should be addressed. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A TEEN PREGNANCY PREVENTION PROGRAM THAT OFFERS SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR PREGNANT AND PARENTING TEENS: When God assigned mothers, he gave me the best.
You have been a their intervention or have . Why children succeed or fail in school is one of the most enduring questions for educational researchers. A salient finding from traditional research on both adult education and early childhood intervention programs is that the mother' s level of education is one of the most important factors.
Jan 29, · Students who participated in an intensive childhood education program from preschool to third grade were more likely to achieve an academic degree beyond high school, compared to a similar group that received other intervention services as children, with greater benefits for those whose mothers were high school dropouts.