Summary What is a Gorilla? Among all the primates, the gorilla is the largest. They range in Central and Western Africa, and there are only two species of gorilla, named Western Gorilla gorilla and Eastern Gorilla beringei. Eastern gorilla ranges in some Central African countries viz.
Approaches[ edit ] One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions: Some theories see language mostly as an innate faculty—largely genetically encoded.
Other theories regard language as a mainly cultural system—learned through social interaction. Noam Chomskya prominent proponent of discontinuity theory, argues that a single chance mutation occurred in one individual in the order ofyears ago, installing the language faculty a component of the mid-brain in "perfect" or "near-perfect" form.
Among those who see language as mostly innate, some—notably Steven Pinker  —avoid speculating about specific precursors in nonhuman primates, stressing simply that the language faculty must have evolved in the usual gradual way. Those who see language as a socially learned tool of communication, such as Michael Tomasellosee it developing from the cognitively controlled aspects of primate communication, these being mostly gestural as opposed to vocal.
A very specific social structure—one capable of upholding unusually high levels of public accountability and trust—must have evolved before or concurrently with language to make reliance on "cheap signals" words an evolutionarily stable strategy.
Because the emergence of language lies so far back in human prehistorythe relevant developments have left no direct historical traces; neither can comparable processes be observed today.
Despite this, the emergence of new sign languages in modern times— Nicaraguan Sign Languagefor example—may potentially offer insights into the developmental stages and creative processes necessarily involved.
Few dispute that Australopithecus probably lacked vocal communication significantly more sophisticated than that of great apes in general,  but scholarly opinions vary as to the developments since the appearance of Homo some 2.
Some scholars assume the development of primitive language-like systems proto-language as early as Homo habiliswhile others place the development of symbolic communication only with Homo erectus 1. Using statistical methods to estimate the time required to achieve the current spread and diversity in modern languages, Johanna Nichols —a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley —argued in that vocal languages must have begun diversifying in our species at leastyears ago.
Atkinson  suggests that successive population bottlenecks occurred as our African ancestors migrated to other areas, leading to a decrease in genetic and phenotypic diversity. Atkinson argues that these bottlenecks also affected culture and language, suggesting that the further away a particular language is from Africa, the fewer phonemes it contains.
By way of evidence, Atkinson claims that today's African languages tend to have relatively large numbers of phonemes, whereas languages from areas in Oceania the last place to which humans migratedhave relatively few. Relying heavily on Atkinson's work, a subsequent study has explored the rate at which phonemes develop naturally, comparing this rate to some of Africa's oldest languages.
The results suggest that language first evolved around 50,—, years ago, which is around the time when modern Homo sapiens evolved.
The pooh-pooh theory saw the first words as emotional interjections and exclamations triggered by pain, pleasure, surprise, etc. The yo-he-ho theory claims language emerged from collective rhythmic labor, the attempt to synchronize muscular effort resulting in sounds such as heave alternating with sounds such as ho.
Problems of reliability and deception[ edit ] Further information: Signalling theory From the perspective of signalling theory, the main obstacle to the evolution of language-like communication in nature is not a mechanistic one.
Rather, it is the fact that symbols—arbitrary associations of sounds or other perceptible forms with corresponding meanings—are unreliable and may well be false.
Animal vocal signals are, for the most part, intrinsically reliable. When a cat purrs, the signal constitutes direct evidence of the animal's contented state.
We trust the signal, not because the cat is inclined to be honest, but because it just cannot fake that sound. Primate vocal calls may be slightly more manipulable, but they remain reliable for the same reason—because they are hard to fake. Monkeys and apes often attempt to deceive each other, while at the same time remaining constantly on guard against falling victim to deception themselves.
Language is ruled out because the best way to guard against being deceived is to ignore all signals except those that are instantly verifiable. Words automatically fail this test.
Should they turn out to be lies, listeners will adapt by ignoring them in favor of hard-to-fake indices or cues. For language to work, then, listeners must be confident that those with whom they are on speaking terms are generally likely to be honest.
This property prevents utterances from being corroborated in the immediate "here" and "now".
For this reason, language presupposes relatively high levels of mutual trust in order to become established over time as an evolutionarily stable strategy. This stability is born of a longstanding mutual trust and is what grants language its authority.
A theory of the origins of language must therefore explain why humans could begin trusting cheap signals in ways that other animals apparently cannot see signalling theory. The 'mother tongues' hypothesis[ edit ] The "mother tongues" hypothesis was proposed in as a possible solution to this problem.
Tecumseh Fitch suggested that the Darwinian principle of ' kin selection '  —the convergence of genetic interests between relatives—might be part of the answer.Generally speaking, interspecies hybrids—like mules, ligers (lion-tiger hybrids), or zedonks (zebra-donkey hybrids)—are less fertile than the parents that produced torosgazete.comr, as McCarthy.
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Chimpanzees is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database. Adult male gorillas and chimps are generally 5 feet tall; however, it should be noted that they appear in size because their weight is radically different. Arial Calibri Arial Black Century Gothic Default Design Compare and Contrast Paragraphs What is the Purpose?
Comparison Paragraph Contrast Paragraph Coherence through Vocabulary. Chimpanzee essaysThe chimpanzee is one of the most fascinating mammals in the animal kingdom, from many different aspects, but the main reason is the likeness to humans and human behavior. In the chimpanzee society they, like us form, very strong and committed family bonds with one another, and tho.
News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services. Observation: Chimpanzee vs White Cheeked Gibbon An observation was conducted at Lincoln Park Zoo of two species of Apes.
The observation was of Chimpanzee and White Cheeked Gibbon. All the observation took place in the morning when the species were active and very play full.