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It was used again in in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: The first German use, Biologie, was in a translation of Linnaeus' work.
The term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur —22 by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranuswho announced: The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre].
Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indian subcontinentand China.
However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life.
Aristotle's successor at the LyceumTheophrastuswrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Medicine was especially well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew heavily on Aristotelian thought, especially in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life.
Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek 's dramatic improvement of the microscope. It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoabacteriainfusoria and the diversity of microscopic life.
Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell.
Then, inSchleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that 1 the basic unit of organisms is the cell and 2 that individual cells have all the characteristics of lifealthough they opposed the idea that 3 all cells come from the division of other cells.
Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchowhowever, by the s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in variations of which have been in use ever sinceand in the s introduced scientific names for all his species.
Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought ; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could then be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would further develop and perfect them.
The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics. In the s and early s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units that had become known as genes.
A focus on new kinds of model organisms such as viruses and bacteriaalong with the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA inmarked the transition to the era of molecular genetics. From the s to present times, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain.
Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in with the goal of mapping the general human genome. This project was essentially completed in with further analysis still being published.
The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a functional, molecular definition of the human body and the bodies of other organisms.
Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Human cancer cells with nuclei specifically the DNA stained blue. The central and rightmost cell are in interphaseso the entire nuclei are labeled.
The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed. Cell theory Cell theory states that the cell is the fundamental unit of lifethat all living things are composed of one or more cells, and that all cells arise from pre-existing cells through cell division.
In multicellular organismsevery cell in the organism's body derives ultimately from a single cell in a fertilized egg. The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. Finally, cells contain hereditary information DNAwhich is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
Research into the origin of life, abiogenesisamounts to an attempt to discover the origin of the first cells. Evolution A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution, and that all life-forms known have a common origin.
The theory of evolution postulates that all organisms on the Earthboth living and extinct, have descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool. This universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.
Darwin theorized that species flourish or die when subjected to the processes of natural selection or selective breeding. Widely varied approaches to biology generate information about phylogeny. These include the comparisons of DNA sequencesa product of molecular biology more particularly genomicsand comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms, a product of paleontology.
For a summary of major events in the evolution of life as currently understood by biologists, see evolutionary timeline.
Evolution is relevant to the understanding of the natural history of life forms and to the understanding of the organization of current life forms. But, those organizations can only be understood in the light of how they came to be by way of the process of evolution.7 great biology topics for a research paper.
Biology research papers have been written on some of the most interesting topics. Finding a good topic depends on personal interest and knowledge. A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.
It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. torosgazete.com 10th, 12th, tntet, trb, tnpsc, study materials, online tests, latest educational tamil news. Our specifications give you the freedom to teach in the way that works best for your students whatever their interests and abilities.
The core content is largely the same, meaning you'll be able to use many of your existing resources. A List Of Good Biology Term Paper Topics To Consider.
Biology can be a fascinating subject for any young student. There are so many aspects of each lesson that you study that you almost don’t have time to analyze them all. Cesar Chavez: Respect for All is a free minute made-for-the-classroom documentary showing that from the s Cesar Chavez demanded respect for women in the workplace and advocated for racial and religious inclusion, gay equality, and animal rights.
Chavez fought for these causes long before many of them became part of the national dialogue. He was a moral pioneer extending the same respect.