He formulated several theories throughout his lifetime including the concepts of infantile sexuality, repression and the unconscious mind. Freud also explored on the structure of the mind, and developed a therapeutic framework that intends to understand and treat disturbing mental issues. Freud's aim was to establish a 'scientific psychology' and his wish was to achieve this by applying to psychology the same principles of causality as were at that that time considered valid in physics and chemistry.
Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysis, which was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his strongest if also most ambivalent attachment seems to have been to a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and hated rival that Freud reproduced often at later stages of his life.
In the Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Viennawhere Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.
So too his interest in the theme of the seduction of daughters was rooted in complicated ways in the context of Viennese attitudes toward female sexuality. In Freud was graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium and, apparently inspired by a public reading of an essay by Goethe on nature, turned to medicine as a career.
In he entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a clinical assistant to train with the psychiatrist Theodor Meynert and the professor of internal medicine Hermann Nothnagel.
At this time he also developed an interest in the pharmaceutical benefits of cocainewhich he pursued for several years. Although Freud was soon to abandon his faith in hypnosishe returned to Vienna in February with the seed of his revolutionary psychological method implanted. Several months after his return Freud married Martha Bernays, the daughter of a prominent Jewish family whose ancestors included a chief rabbi of Hamburg and Heinrich Heine.
She was to bear six children, one of whom, Anna Freudwas to become a distinguished psychoanalyst in her own right.
Shortly after his marriage Freud began his closest friendship, with the Berlin physician Wilhelm Fliess, whose role in the development of psychoanalysis has occasioned widespread debate.
Throughout the 15 years of their intimacy Fliess provided Freud an invaluable interlocutor for his most daring ideas. A somewhat less controversial influence arose from the partnership Freud began with the physician Josef Breuer after his return from Paris.
Freud turned to a clinical practice in neuropsychologyand the office he established at Berggasse 19 was to remain his consulting room for almost half a century. Rather than using hypnotic suggestion, as had Charcot, Breuer allowed her to lapse into a state resembling autohypnosis, in which she would talk about the initial manifestations of her symptoms.
By encouraging the patient to express any random thoughts that came associatively to mind, the technique aimed at uncovering hitherto unarticulated material from the realm of the psyche that Freud, following a long tradition, called the unconscious.
Because of its incompatibility with conscious thoughts or conflicts with other unconscious ones, this material was normally hidden, forgotten, or unavailable to conscious reflection.
Such blockages Freud dubbed resistance, which had to be broken down in order to reveal hidden conflicts. Unlike Charcot and Breuer, Freud came to the conclusion, based on his clinical experience with female hysterics, that the most insistent source of resisted material was sexual in nature.
And even more momentously, he linked the etiology of neurotic symptoms to the same struggle between a sexual feeling or urge and the psychic defenses against it. Being able to bring that conflict to consciousness through free association and then probing its implications was thus a crucial step, he reasoned, on the road to relieving the symptom, which was best understood as an unwitting compromise formation between the wish and the defense.
Screen memories At first, however, Freud was uncertain about the precise status of the sexual component in this dynamic conception of the psyche. His patients seemed to recall actual experiences of early seductions, often incestuous in nature.
But then, as he disclosed in a now famous letter to Fliess of September 2,he concluded that, rather than being memories of actual events, these shocking recollections were the residues of infantile impulses and desires to be seduced by an adult. What was recalled was not a genuine memory but what he would later call a screen memory, or fantasyhiding a primitive wish.
That is, rather than stressing the corrupting initiative of adults in the etiology of neuroses, Freud concluded that the fantasies and yearnings of the child were at the root of later conflict. The absolute centrality of his change of heart in the subsequent development of psychoanalysis cannot be doubted.
For in attributing sexuality to children, emphasizing the causal power of fantasies, and establishing the importance of repressed desiresFreud laid the groundwork for what many have called the epic journey into his own psyche, which followed soon after the dissolution of his partnership with Breuer.
To be fully universal, psychoanalysis—a term Freud coined in —would also have to examine the male psyche in a condition of what might be called normality.
It would have to become more than a psychotherapy and develop into a complete theory of the mind. To this end Freud accepted the enormous risk of generalizing from the experience he knew best: In OctoberJakob Freud died shortly before his 81st birthday. Emotions were released in his son that he understood as having been long repressed, emotions concerning his earliest familial experiences and feelings.
Beginning in earnest in JulyFreud attempted to reveal their meaning by drawing on a technique that had been available for millennia: The interpretation of dreams In what many commentators consider his master work, Die Traumdeutung published inbut given the date of the dawning century to emphasize its epochal character; The Interpretation of Dreamshe presented his findings.
Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those recounted in his clinical practice, Freud contended that dreams played a fundamental role in the psychic economy. Needing to be discharged to ensure pleasure and prevent pain, it sought whatever outlet it might find.
If denied the gratification provided by direct motor action, libidinal energy could seek its release through mental channels. Or, in the language of The Interpretation of Dreams, a wish can be satisfied by an imaginary wish fulfillment. All dreams, Freud claimed, even nightmares manifesting apparent anxietyare the fulfillment of such wishes.
More precisely, dreams are the disguised expression of wish fulfillments. Like neurotic symptoms, they are the effects of compromises in the psyche between desires and prohibitions in conflict with their realization.Sigmund Freud is a book in which each chapter is a gem—a concise, very accessible rendering of the essence of Freud’s psychoanalytic thinking, accessible by .
Sigmund Freud (May 6, to Sept. 23, ) founded psychoanalysis, a treatment technique that involves the patient talking to a psychoanalyst. Credit: Everett - Art / torosgazete.com Though his ideas were controversial, Sigmund Freud was one of the most .
SIGMUND FREUD "When you think of this dividing up of the personality into ego, super-ego and id, you must not imagine sharp dividing lines such as are artificially drawn in the field of political geography. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, 3 Volumes [Gerard Jones] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
An analytical biography of the precursor of psychoanalysis and famous neurologist, which reveals his childhood. Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others.. Freud first used the term psychoanalysis (in French) in Sexuality and The Psychology of Love [Sigmund Freud] on torosgazete.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Book by Freud, Sigmund.