Japanese and Nikkei at Home and Abroad1 Nobuko Adachi Today, three million people of Japanese descent are citizens of almost every nation in the world.
Rather than experiencing incarceration, close relatives may have experienced the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the Battle of Okinawa, or other bombings in the Japanese archipelago. Tracy grew up in California with a mother from Japan. It would be nice to find something contemporary. So Tracy is not saying that incarceration history is unimportant.
Rather, she wonders if there is a more contemporary experience and identity that can bring Nikkei Americans together.
Third, by college he already had a nationality-based identity. So although he is a U. He is more focused on his two national parentages than on his racial or ethnic backgrounds.
His upbringing outside of the United States encouraged him to see himself in this way. Many mixed-race Nikkei Americans whom I interviewed feel excluded from identifying as Japanese American based on phenotype physical characteristics and other racial connotations.
But Asian is a racial category that implies phenotypical differences from whites and blacks, such as eye shape and skin, hair and eye color. Addressing Diversity Even though my interviewees may not be representative of the larger Nikkei population in the United States, their perspectives do illuminate some aspects of how people currently understand being Japanese American.
For one, they reveal how central the incarceration and prewar immigration experience in the United States is to current constructions of the Japanese American community.
There are numerous legitimate reasons for this. I think it is most useful when these pre-and postwar histories are recognized as distinct yet overlapping, rather than as somehow woven together.
Instead of this, subgroups within the Nikkei American population could be identified and each of their histories recognized separately, intersecting as people migrate from one place to another.
There is also rich material to explore by comparing how different groups of Nikkei Americans have experienced certain events or time periods.
When immigration history looks comparatively at Japanese migration to the United States in both the prewar and postwar periods, we gain new insights into how both nations, and Nikkei American experiences, have changed over the decades.
How different is a Japanese American identity centered around speaking Japanese and visiting Japan regularly and one centered in Japantowns, basketball leagues, and U. Over the past 15 years, we can see many community organizations becoming more inclusive.
The marginalized Nikkei experiences mentioned in this essay are just a few examples. An ongoing task for us all is to continue to identify and address the needs of underrepresented groups in the community. As we continually reconstruct what it means to be Japanese American or Nikkei, who does this include?
As being of mixed-race, Japanese and Caucasian, becomes increasingly mainstream, how do we include other mixed-race Nikkei? What other people of Japanese ancestry in the United States might not identify with mainstream narratives of Japanese American history and identity and what can we do about this?
As our community continues to evolve proactively asking these questions can help us find new answers to what it means to be Japanese American.
WinterVol 26, No.Recommended citation: Nobuko Adachi, "Ethnic Identity, Culture, and Race: Japanese and Nikkei at Home and Abroad," The Asia-Pacific Journal, , September 13, References Abraham, Traci and Dan Serradilla-Avery.
The Japón Lineage in Spain: Voices from the Unsung Past in the Creation of Identity though Tourism Today. Chapter 8; Race and Ethnicity.
Unit Explain three myths of race. Explain how ethnicity differs from race. - Population Transfer - the dominant group expels the minority group the U.S.
government relocated Native Americans to reservations and during World War II transferred Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps.
These are. Through analysis of local newspapers, Japanese American authored camp newspapers, documentaries, personal and supervision of the Japanese American population.
race-based internment, and Mr. justice rutledge.” Journal of Supreme Court History, (), Students use questionnaires, role playing and simulation to explore the effects of Japanese internment on the Japanese-American population in the s.
Students also explore the aftermath of the internment, constutional rights and. Population redistributions based on ethnicity have defused intense rivalries in the recent past, and could be a solution to the internal ethnic crises for nations such as the former Yugoslavia.
Currently described by the media as "ethnic cleansing", Population redistributions have been the focus of much controversy throughout U.S. and world history. Japanese Internment - Japanese Internment The Japanese Internment took place between the years of and At the time most of the Japanese population was concentrated in the United States on the West Coast of Canada.
The Japanese first immigrated to U.S. to work on the railroad in