Crop Circles Geometry's Connection with the Arabesque The great error lies in supposing that even the truths of what is called pure algebra, are abstract or general truths. And this error is so egregious that I am confounded at the universality with which it has been received. Mathematical axioms are not axioms of general truth. In this article I shall explore certain work to date, add a little of my own, and suggest the most fruitful direction to pursue regarding geometry in Islamic art and architecture.
Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. While pre-alphabetic systems of writing in the Old World became steadily more phonetic, they were still exceedingly cumbersome, and the syllabic systems that gradually replaced them… Theories of the origin of the alphabet The evolution of the alphabet involved two important achievements.
The first was the step taken by a group of Semitic-speaking people, perhaps the Phoenicians, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean between and bce. This was the invention of a consonantal writing system known as North Semitic. The second was the invention, by the Greeks, of characters for representing vowels.
This step occurred between and bce. While some scholars consider the Semitic writing system an unvocalized syllabary and the Greek system the true alphabet, both are treated here as forms of the alphabet.
Over the centuries, various theories have been advanced to explain the origin of alphabetic writing, and, since Classical times, the problem has been a matter of serious study.
The Greeks and Romans considered five different peoples as the possible inventors of the alphabet—the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Cretans, and Hebrews.
Among modern theories are some that are not very different from those of ancient days. Every country situated in or more or less near the eastern Mediterranean has been singled out for the honour. Egyptian writingcuneiformCretan, hieroglyphic Hittite, the Cypriot syllabaryand other scripts have all been called prototypes of the alphabet.
The Egyptian theory actually subdivides into three separate theories, according to whether the Egyptian hieroglyphic, the hieratic, or the demotic script is regarded as the true parent of alphabetic writing. Similarly, the idea that cuneiform was the precursor of the alphabet may also be subdivided into those singling out Sumerian, Babylonian, or Assyrian cuneiform.
Among the various other theories concerning the alphabet are the hypotheses that the alphabet was taken by the Philistines from Crete to Palestine, that the various ancient scripts of the Mediterranean countries developed from prehistoric geometric symbols employed throughout the Mediterranean area from the earliest times, and that the proto-Sinaitic inscriptions discovered since in the Sinai Peninsula represent a stage of writing intermediate between the Egyptian hieroglyphics and the North Semitic alphabet.
Another hypothesisthe Ugaritic theory, evolved after an epoch-making discovery in and the years following at the site of the ancient Ugariton the Syrian coast opposite the most easterly cape of Cyprus.
Thousands of clay tablets were found there, documents of inestimable value in many fields of research including epigraphyphilologyand the history of religion. Dating from the 15th and 14th centuries bce, they were written in a cuneiform alphabet of 30 letters.
The Early Canaanite theory is based on several undeciphered inscriptions also discovered since at various Palestinian sites; the writings belong in part to c. Despite the conflict in theories, scholars are generally agreed that, for about years before the middle of the 2nd millennium bce, alphabet making was in the air in the Syro-Palestinian region.
It is idle to speculate on the meaning of the various discoveries referred to. That they manifest closely related efforts is certain; what the exact relationship among these efforts was, and what their relationship with the North Semitic alphabet was, cannot be said with certainty.
It can, however, be ascertained that the period from to bce in SyriaPalestine, and Egypt, during which there was an uprooting of established cultural and ethnic patterns in the Fertile Crescentprovided conditions favourable to the conception of an alphabetic script, a kind of writing that would be more accessible to larger groups of people, in contrast to the scripts of the old states of Mesopotamia and Egypt, which were confined largely to the priestly class.
Euclidean geometry is an example of synthetic geometry, in that it proceeds logically from axioms describing basic properties of geometric objects such as points and lines, to propositions about those objects, all without the use of coordinates to . Constructing a parallel line In the Constructions chapter, there is an animated demonstration of how to construct a line parallel to another that passes through a given point, using only a compass and straightedge. See Constructing a parallel line through a point. Parallel planes. A summary of Angles in 's Geometry: Constructions. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Geometry: Constructions and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
In default of other direct evidence, it is reasonable to suppose that the actual prototype of the alphabet was not very different from the writing of the earliest North Semitic inscriptions now extantwhich belong to the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.
The North Semitic alphabet was so constant for many centuries that it is impossible to think that there had been any material changes in the preceding two to three centuries. Moreover, the North Semitic languages, based as they are on a consonantal root i. The inventor or inventors of the alphabet were, no doubt, influenced by Egyptian writing—perhaps also by other scripts.
Indeed, it is probable that those who invented the alphabet were acquainted with most of the scripts current in the eastern Mediterranean lands at the time. It is now generally agreed that the originators belonged to the Northwest Semitic linguistic group, which includes the ancient Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Hebrews.
The North Semitic alphabet remained almost unaltered for many centuries. The Hebrew order of the letters seems to be the oldest.
It includes the scratching of the first five letters of the early Hebrew alphabet in their conventional order, and it belongs to the 8th or 7th century bce.Now that we have discussed the 11 main line types, you should be able to do the following: 1.
Identify the alphabet of lines. 2.
Identify where the line types are used. 3. Produce the lines with various line weights/5(15). The elements of art are components or parts of a work of art that can be isolated and defined. They are the building blocks used to create a work of art. A line is an identifiable path created by a point moving in space.
It is one-dimensional and can vary in width, direction, and length. Geometric shapes and forms include mathematical. Printable Primary Paper All kinds of printable specialty paper for Writing and Math.
Print prinmary writing paper with the dotted lines, special paper for formatting friendly letters, graph paper, and lots more! Alphabet of Lines: Geometric Construction Essay Sample. In antiquity, geometric constructions of figures and lengths were restricted to the use of only a straightedge and compass (or in Plato’s case, a compass only; a technique now called a Mascheroni construction).
Geometry is mainly divided in to two which is plane geometry and solid geometry. Plane geometry is about all kinds of two dimensional shapes such as lines, circles, and triangles. While Solid geometry is about all kinds of three dimensional shapes like polygons, prisms, pyramids, sphere and cylinder.
Elements of Art Name Design Project!
1. On the Project paper Lightly & Largely sketch out the Hollow letters of your first name. Lines, Shapes, Forms, Space, Texture, Value, & Color •On your NOTE Paper, Write everything that’s Underlined in the power point Add drawings to your notes.
On the inside of the letter do Geometric line.